The Freedom of the Will

Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer

On the Freedom of the Will is an essay presented to the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences in 1839 by Arthur Schopenhauer as a response to the academic question that they had posed: “Is it possible to demonstrate human free will from self-consciousness?” It is one of the constituent essays of his work Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik. Continue reading

United States is not a Christian nation: Treaty of Tripoli

Treaty of Tripoli

The Treaty of Tripoli (Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the United States of America and the Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary) was the first treaty concluded between the United States of America and Tripolitania, signed at Tripoli on November 4, 1796 and at Algiers (for a third-party witness) on January 3, 1797. It was submitted to the Senate by President John Adams, receiving ratification unanimously from the U.S. Senate on June 7, 1797 and signed by Adams, taking effect as the law of the land on June 10, 1797. Continue reading

The Tensions Between Faith and History

tension between faith and history

Can Christian faith be reconciled with an historical approach to Jesus and the Bible?

Harold W. Attridge:
The Lillian Claus Professor of New Testament Yale Divinity Schoo

How as a scholar and a historian do you reconcile studying the Bible in a rationalist way with your Christian faith?

I suppose it’s an important part of my theological commitment that I believe that Jesus was divine in some way, but that it was Jesus who was divine. It was a human being who was divine. And that the tradition of Christianity insists very strongly on the full humanity of Jesus. And so, if I’m to understand my faith as a Christian, Continue reading

Christian Salvation Does Not Make Any Sense

First on the list is the idea that salvation is unconditional. Grace is freely bestowed on the believer. The believer is not saved by works, or by earning it in any way; it is a gift, offered freely and without cost to the believer. Or so we are led to believe. I contend that this concept does not make sense. Continue reading

Proof god don’t exist.

Some people falsely believe that it is impossible to prove the unexistence of anything, but they are wrong. It can, for example, be proved that there is no even prime number greater than two. Other people use to say that there is no way to prove if there is a god or not, or even that we cannot get any knowledge of god (agnosticism). Continue reading

Why Did The Chicken Cross The Road? (Philosophical humor)

chicken crooroad

“Why did the chicken cross the road?” is a common riddle or joke in several languages. The answer or punchline is: “To get to the other side.” The riddle is an example of anti-humor, in that the curious setup of the joke leads the listener to expect a traditional punchline, but they are instead given a simple statement of fact. “Why did the chicken cross the road?” has become largely iconic as an exemplary generic joke to which most people know the answer, and has been repeated and changed numerous times.
The following is the answer given by some of the great men well known:

Plato: For the greater good.

Karl Marx: It was a historical inevitability.

Machiavelli: So that its subjects will view it with admiration,
as a chicken which has the daring and courage to
boldly cross the road, but also with fear, for whom
among them has the strength to contend with such a
paragon of avian virtue? In such a manner is the
princely chicken’s dominion maintained. Continue reading